Meeting these challenges will require sophisticated public-private partnerships. Government’s role involves regulation of electric utilities, delivering technical education, funding basic and applied research, revising building codes and decarbonizing its own facilities. Private firms will need to manufacture, market and install renewable energy technologies including the software and hardware required to modernize the electric grid, solar cells, batteries, electric vehicles, vehicle charging stations and the devices to connect and disconnect from the grid. The political clout of the fossil fuel industry may be deployed to block the government elements of the partnership required. I am guessing that just as tech firms have developed political clout once they gained wealth and economic power, we will see a similar pattern with renewable energy companies. As they grow, they will lobby more effectively and gradually be able to counter the political power of the fossil fuel business.